Pre-Republic figures estimatedThroughout most of its history, Istanbul has ranked among the largest cities in the world. By 500 CE, Constantinople had somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 people, edging out its predecessor, Rome, for the world's largest city. Constantinople jostled with other major historical cities, such as Baghdad, Chang'an, Kaifeng and Merv for the page position of the world's largest city until the 12th century. It never returned to being the world's largest, but remained the largest city in Europe from 1500 to 1750, when it was surpassed by London. As a result of Istanbul's exponential growth in the 20th century, a significant portion of the city is composed of gecekondus (literally "built overnight"), referring to illegally constructed squatter buildings. At present, some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by modern mass-housing compounds.
- Turan's figures, as well as the 2010 figure, come from the Turkish Statistical Institute.
- Expectation-maximization, one of the most popular algorithms in machine learning, allows clustering in the presence of unknown latent variables.
- For example, Georgetown University's Center for Security and Emerging Technology has the Cyber-AI Project, with one goal being to attract policymakers' attention to the growing body of academic research, whichexposes the exploitive consequences of AI and machine-learning algorithms.
- Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.
- Finland negotiated with the European Economic Community a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977, although Finland did not fully join.
- "Rockefeller sought and obtained eight tax increases during his fifteen years in office." "During his administration, the tax burden rose to a higher level than in any other state, and the incidence of taxation shifted, with a greater share being borne by the individual taxpayer."
The dialects from which the modern-day Finnish language was developed came into existence during the Iron Age. Although distantly related, the Sami retained the hunter-gatherer lifestyle longer than the Finns. The Sami cultural identity and the Sami language have survived in Lapland, the northernmost province, but the Sami have been displaced or assimilated elsewhere.
Lists With This Book
As of 2021, there were 469,633 people with a foreign background living in Finland (8.5% of the population), most of whom are from the former Soviet Union, Estonia, Somalia, Iraq and former Yugoslavia. The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship, as Finnish nationality law practices and maintain jus sanguinis policy where only children born to at least one Finnish parent are granted citizenship. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country, they become citizens. Additionally, certain persons of Finnish descent who reside in countries that were once part of Soviet Union, retain the right of return, a right to establish permanent residency in the country, which would eventually entitle them to qualify for citizenship.
Foreign Relations And International Institutions
They announced their engagement at the Chicago Theatre and married on January 26, 1940, at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale, California. Together they had two biological daughters, Maureen (1941–2001) and Christine , and adopted a son, Michael (b. 1945). After the couple had arguments about Reagan's political ambitions, Wyman filed for divorce in 1948, citing a distraction due to her husband's Screen Actors Guild union duties; the divorce was finalized in 1949. Wyman, who was a registered Republican, also stated that their breakup stemmed from a difference in politics .
In 2002, the Swiss Federal Council asked a tripartite committee to prepare the "creation of a federal law on the status of Bern as a Federal City" and to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the city and the canton of Bern if this status were awarded. After a first report, the work of this committee was suspended in 2004 by the Swiss Federal Council, and work on this subject has not resumed since. Until 1500 the legates met most of the time in Lucerne, but also in Zürich, Baden, Bern, Schwyz etc., but sometimes also at places outside of the confederation, such as Constance. From the Swabian War in 1499 onwards until Reformation, most conferences met in Zürich.
The most dense rail network in Europe of 5,250 kilometres carries over 596 million passengers annually . In 2015, each Swiss resident travelled on average 2,550 kilometres by rail, which makes them the keenest rail users. The vast majority (60%) of the network is operated by the Swiss Federal Railways . On 31 May 2016 the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel and the first flat, low-level route through the Alps, the 57.1-kilometre long (35.5 mi) Gotthard Base Tunnel, opened as the largest part of the New Railway Link through the Alps project after 17 years of realization.
In 1973, Rockefeller worked with former Delaware Governor Russell W. Peterson to establish the Commission on Critical Choices for Americans. The Commission was a private study project on national and international policy similar to the Special Studies Project he led 15 years earlier. It was made up of a nationally representative, bipartisan group of 42 prominent Americans drawn from far-ranging fields of interest who served on a voluntary basis. Members included the majority and minority leaders of both houses of Congress.